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Subjects /Indian History / Modern History / Anglo-Mysore Wars

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INTRODUCTION
10 Aug 2021

  • Mysore had grown in a powerful state under Haider Ali.
  • The British initiated a war with the Haider Ali so as to expand its territory.
  • The war ended with the defeat of Tipu and at the end he ceded half of his territories to the British.

1st ANGLO MYSOR WAR

Timeline: 1767-1769

Cause:

  • Haidar Ali decided to force away the British from South India and finally from, whole of India. The British on the other hand wanted the expansion of that territory.
  • The British declared war against Haider Ali and formed an alliance with the Marathas and the Nizam Hider Ali also declared the war against them and defeated the East India Company at many places.

Finally, the ‘Treaty of Madras was signed. According to this treaty:

  • There would be a mutual restitution of conquest.
  • There could also be an exchange of war prisoners.
  • It was defensive and offensive alliance.

2nd ANGLO MYSOR WAR

Timeline: 1780-1784

Cause:

  • In 1771, when the Marathas attacked Haider Ali, the British did not help him nor did they provide any support.
  • The immediate cause was the capturing of a part of Mahe by the East India Company in 1780, which was of great importance to Haider Ali.
  • Haider Ali declared war against the British and captured Arcot.

The arrival of Sir Eyre Coote reversed the result and Haider Ali was defeated in the Battle of PortoNoro in 1781.

Haider Ali passed away but his son Tipu Sultan continued the struggle. At this stage the French Came to his assistance and finally a treaty was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British.

Treaty of Mangalore, 1784

  • There could be a mutual restitution of conquest.
  • There would also be an exchange of war prisoners.
  • It was a defensive and offensive alliance.

3rd ANGLO MYSOR WAR

Timeline: 1790-1792

Cause:

  • In 1790, Tipu Sultan attacked Travancore which was an ally of the English. Cornwallis declared war against Tipu and captured Travancore in 1791 by defeating Tipu Sultan.
  • Tipu Sultan escaped from there.

Once again Tipu Sultan was defeated by the joint army of the British, the Nizam and the Marathas, and finally the ‘Treaty of Seringapatanam was signed.

Under this treaty:

  • Tipu agreed to surrender half of his territories
  • The English got the territories of Bara Mahal, Salem, Dindigul and Malabar. The rest were given to the Marathas and the Nizam.
  • English were given Rs.3 crore 30 lakh as war indemnity.
  • All the war prisoners were released.

Note: “We have effectively crippled our enemy without making our friends too formidable”- Cornwallis

Sons of Tipu- Abdul aged 5 years and Muiz-Ud-Din aged 8 years, well treated by Cornwallis and he also gave then gold wrist watches.

4th ANGLO MYSORE WAR

Timeline: 1799

  • Lord Wellesley came to India in 1798 and added to Tipu to break his ties with the French and sign on the Subsidiary Alliance System.
  • Tipu Sultan refused.
  • Wellesley declared war on Tipu and Defeated and Killed Him.

Note:

  • The new Mysore state entered the Subsidiary Alliance System.
  • Mysore state was given to Prince Krishna who belonged to the Wadiyar Dynasty.