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Nutrients
17 Aug 2021

Nutrients are substances that are needed by our body for correct growth and healthy body function.

What are the assorted nutrients needed by human body?

  • Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals and Fibers.
  • These nutrients fulfill different needs of the body. Our body needs these nutrients for proper functioning of the body.

Carbohydrates

Benefits of Carbohydrates:

Carbohydrates provide energy to your body, which keeps it going throughout the day.

List out the categories of carbohydrates:

Starch and Sugar

What are Simple Carbohydrate?

  • Sugar is additionally called simple carbohydrate like Honey, Fruits are some sources of sugar.

What are Complex Carbohydrate?

  • Starch is additionally called complex carbohydrate.
  • Plants store energy in the kind of starch. Rice, wheat, corn, potato, and bread are some sources of starch.
  • Once we eat plant products, containing sugar and starch, our gastrointestinal system breaks them down into glucose.
  • This glucose, which is the simplest type of sugar is then absorbed into the blood and provides us energy.

How to test for Carbohydrates in your food?

  • Take the food item in the tube.
  • Add 2 to 3 drops of dilute iodine solution to that.
  • After sometime if the colour changes to blue-black, it indicates the presence of starch in the food item.

Proteins

What are body building food?

  • Protein are body building food.
  • These are necessary for the growth and repair of body that's why growing children, pregnant women and people recovering from illness need more protein in their diet.

List out the sources of plant proteins and animal proteins?

  • Plant Protein - Cereals, Pulses, Beans
  • Animal Protein - Egg, Fish, Meat

How to test for protein in your food?

  • Take food item in the tube and add 10 drops of water to that and blend well.
  • Add 2 drops of copper sulphate and 10 drops of caustic soda solution, mix it well.
  • After sometime you observe the event of violet color the test tube, it indicates the presence or the proteins.

Fats

What is the function of fats in our body?

  • Fats give more energy than carbohydrates, however it's difficult for the body to digest fats as a result more than fat get stored in body. And by doing exercises, we can burn this extra fat.

Name the sources of fats?

  • Butter
  • Cream
  • Meat
  • Milk
  • Ghee

How to test for fats in your food?

  • Take some food item andwrap a paper around it.
  • Then try and crush it taking care that the paper isn't torn.
  • Afterwards remove the food item and permit the paper to be dried for a few time.
  • If you find the oil spots on the paper it indicates the presence of fats in the food item.

Vitamins

What are Vitamins?

  • Vitamins are needed for the right functioning of our body. they assist to keep our eyes, bones, teeth, and gums healthy.

List of the kinds of Vitamins:

  • Fat Soluble
  • Water Soluble

What are Fat Soluble?

  • Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins.
  • These are stored within the fat tissues of our body and are used only the body needs them.
  • Our body prepares vitamin D in the presence of sunlight.

What are Water Soluble?

  • Water-soluble vitamins Vitamins Bl, B2, B3, B6, B12, and folic acid (together called vitamin B complex) and vitamin C are water-soluble vitamins.
  • Since water-soluble vitamins aren't stored in the body, these ought to be regularly supplied through food items like citrus fruits, spinach, and other green leafy vegetables, etc.
  • Lack of vitamins in the body can cause deficiency diseases.

Minerals

What are the advantages of Minerals and their types?

  • Minerals perform important functions like formation of bones, teeth, and blood cells and helps in maintaining a standard heartbeat.
  • Types include: Macro-minerals and Trace minerals.

What are macro-minerals and provides example?

  • Macro-minerals are needed by the body in larger amounts as compared to trace minerals.
  • Examples: Potassium, Sodium, Calcium and Magnesium

What are trace minerals and provides example?

  • Trace minerals are needed by the body in very small amounts.
  • Examples: zinc, copper, iodine and iron.

Balanced Diet

  • A diet that contains adequate amount of various nutrients required for the healthy functioning of our body is termed a balanced diet.
  • Balanced diet comprises the components like vitamins, minerals, enough water, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Balanced diet always keeps our body fit and resistant to diseases.

Obesity

What do you mean obesity?

Obesity may be a medical condition that results from excess intake of fat-rich foods. the excess fat gets accumulated to such an extent that it starts negatively affecting one’s health, well-being and also the ability to hold out certain activities.

List out the methods for maintaining good health?

  • Drink lots of water
  • Do regular physical exercises
  • Eat several fruits and green vegetables
  • Always take fresh and clean food
  • Avoid junk food
  • Avoid food that's too spicy or oily.

Dehydration

What is Dehydration?

  • Water is extremely essential for correct functioning of our body. Excess loss of water from the body ends up in a condition called dehydration.
  • Dehydration results in loss of fluid from our body through sweat, tears, vomiting or urine.
  • It can cause infections in our body.

Roughage

What are Roughage?

  • Dietary fibers are called roughage.
  • Roughage is especially provided by plant products in our foods.
  • Some examples of roughage: grains, fruits, nuts and beans etc.
  • It keeps our digestive system clean and healthy.

NCERT Solutions for Components of food

1. Name the major nutrients in our food.

Ans: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals and dietary fibers.

2. Name the following:

(a) The nutrients which mainly give energy to our body.

(b) The nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of our body.

(c) A vitamin required for maintaining good eyesight.

(d) A mineral that is required for keeping our bones healthy.

a) Carbohydrates

b) Proteins and minerals

c) Vitamin A

d) Calcium

3. Name two foods each rich in:

(a) Fats

(b) Starch

(c) Dietary fiber

(d) Protein

Solution:

a) Cream, Butter

b) Rice, Wheat

c) Whole grains, raw vegetables

d) Milk, Soya bean

4. Tick (√) the statements that are correct.

(a) By eating rice alone, we can fulfill nutritional requirement of our body. ( )

(b) Deficiency diseases can be prevented by eating a balanced diet. ( )

(c) Balanced diet for the body should contain a variety of food items. ( )

(d) Meat alone is sufficient to provide all nutrients to the body. ( )

Solution:

(a) By eating rice alone, we can fulfill nutritional requirement of our body. (x)

(b) Deficiency diseases can be prevented by eating a balanced diet. (√ )

(c) Balanced diet for the body should contain a variety of food items. (√ )

(d) Meat alone is sufficient to provide all nutrients to the body. (x)

5. Fill in the blanks.

(a) Rickets is caused by deficiency of Vitamin D.

(b) Deficiency of Vitamin B1 causes a disease known as beri-beri.

(c) Deficiency of Vitamin C causes a disease known as Scurvy.

(d) Night blindness is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin A in our food.