The five dynasties which were founded subsequently after the Turkish invasion were collectively known as Delhi Sultanate.
- Slave/Mamluk Dynasty (1206AD-1290AD)
- Khilji Dynasty (1290AD-1320AD)
- Tughlaq Dynasty (1320AD-1412AD)
- Sayyid Dynasty (1414AD-1451AD)
- Lodhi Dynasty (1451AD-1526 AD)
The Mamluk Dynasty from 1206AD to 1290AD
Qutub-ud-din Aibak (Ruled in India from1206-1210 AD)
Founder of Sultanate : Qutub-ud-din Aibak
Capital: Lahore, Punjab.
In 1206 after the death of Ghori, Qutub-ud-din Aibak declared himself ‘Sultan’.
- He was the founder of the Mamluk dynast and the first sultan of the Delhi Sultanate .
- Now Indian Turkish area became independent from Ghori.
- Aibak was a slave so, Aibak dynasty is called as ‘Slave Dynasty or Ilbari Dynasty “.
- Ilbari was the tribe of the Turk ruling over India.
- 1st Muslim Museum built near Qutub Minar in Delhi by Turks was constructed by Aibak.
- The Vishnu temple was converted to a Mosque.
Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra : 2nd Turkish mosque built by Aibak in Ajmer.
- It was built in 2 and a half days that is why this name was given to it.
- This was earlier a Sanskrit college built by Chauhan’s which was converted by Aibak into a Mosque.
- Aibak died playing sport name chugan (Polo).
Iltutmish from 1210AD to 1236 AD
- He was son in law of Aibak.
- Succeeded Aibak after fighting and defeating the son of Aibak.
- Iltutmish must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish conquests in India.
- He transferred the capital of Sultanate from Lahore to Delhi.
He introduced 2 types of Islamic coins.
- Tanka (Made from silver and sometimes from gold as well.
- Jital (Copper coin)
- He started a special type of army called as Chihalgani /Chalisa dal for the protection of Sultan.
- It was called chalisa because he had 40 people in his special army.
- Daughter of Iltutmish and 1st women ruler of India.
- She ruled only for 3 years.
- But she was not 1st ruler in Islamic world and the first was Mallika Turkan in Persia(Iran).
- Razia faced revolt and not supported by Ulemas and Umaras.
It marked the beginning of a struggle for power and between the monarchy and the Turkish chiefs, sometimes called “the forty “or the chahalgani.
- Ulemas: Theologians (interpreters of Islam).
- Umaras: Class of nobility (higher administrators).
- Umaras and Ulemas were not ready to work under the rule of a woman ruler (Gender Issue).
- Also because they were against her Unfeminine dressing and behavior (relations with African slave called Yakut).
- 1st one to revolt was Altunia (Governor) and in a counter move Razia married him in order to gain his support.
- She sent an expedition against Ranthambore to control the Rajput’s, and successfully established law and order in the length and breadth of her kingdom.
- Razia and Altunia were killed by bandits in a forest in Kaithal(Haryana) because of surcharge atmosphere in India.
- Qudsia Bagh Mausoleum: Razia sultan mausoleum was built in Old Delhi.
- After her death in 1240, some insignificant rulers came to rule and there no significant changes were made.
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1246AD-87AD)
- Balban changed the ‘Theory of Kingship’.
- Under his rule the position of king became very very high.
- Balban through various institutions raised the positions of king as compared to position of Umara.
- He was the 1st ruler to introduce the practice of ‘Sijdah’ (Prostration) towards sultan by Umara’s (To bend & acknowledge the king).
- He also introduced Pabos which means kissing the feet of the sultan when sitting & kissing the shoes & slippers of sultan when standing or not available in court.
- He introduced new festival of ‘Nawroz’ (New-year festivals celebrated by Parsi community).
- He made it a state festival of India.
- He celebrated Nawroz festival in a very grand and magnificent way to impress the local people of India.
- Balban made raised the personal expenses of the sultan.
- Balban was only the sultan in India wearing the costliest clothes and shoes in order to show it is very grand and magnificent of a sultan.
- Infact, there was a certain dress code for Umaras and they could enter the royal court only then.
- To strengthen the power of sultan he came with his “Blood and Iron policy”, which meant mass killings of the opponents.
- He was first sultan of India who claimed the sultan is “Zill-i-illahi “(The will of god).
- So Ulemas cannot question the will of sultan.
- Balban was the founder of ‘semi divine kingship ‘theory.
- Balban Mausoleum is in south Delhi near Qutub minar.
- Balban Tomb is the 1st Islamic monument with true ‘Arch’.
- Balban’s methods were often harsh and undesirable. But there is no doubt that with his accession to the throne there began an era of strong, centralized government.
- He refused to entertain for important government posts to anyone who did not belong to a noble family.
- This virtually meant the exclusion of Indian Muslims from all positions of power and authority.
- He tried to act as a champion of Turkish nobility.
- At the same time, in order to win the confidence of the public, he administered justice with extreme impartiality.
- He appointed spies in every department.
- He organized a strong centralized army and reorganized the military department (diwan- i–arz), and pensioned off those soldiers and troopers who were no longer fit for service.
- Balban died in 1286.
- He was undoubtedly one of the main architects of the sultanate of Delhi, particularly of its form of government and institutions.
- By asserting the power of the monarchy, Balban strengthened the Delhi sultanate.
Did You Know
- Tabaqa -i-nasiri: Author Minhaj I siraj
- Written in Persian (court language was persian) official history of early Delhi sultans .
- Non-Muslims who came from Persia in India are called ‘Parsi ‘. Most of them lived in Bombay , Maharashtra & Goa.