The five dynasties which were founded subsequently after the Turkish invasion were collectively known as Delhi Sultanate.
- Slave/Mamluk Dynasty (1206AD-1290AD)
- Khilji Dynasty (1290AD-1320AD)
- Tughlaq Dynasty (1320AD-1412AD)
- Sayyid Dynasty (1414AD-1451AD)
- Lodhi Dynasty (1451AD-1526 AD)
Sayyid Dynasty from 1414AD to 1451AD
Founder: Khizr Khan
- The sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, with four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451. Founded by Khizr Khan a former governor of Multan.
- They succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled the sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodhi dynasty.
- Their capital remained at Delhi.
The following were the rulers:
1414-21: Khizr Khan
1421-1434: Mubarak Shah
1434-1445: Muhammad Shah
1445-1451: Ala-ud-din Shah.
Lodhi Dynasty from 1451AD to 1526AD
- They were Afghans.
Founder: Bahlol Khan Lodi (1451-1489)
- Their original homeland was Afghanistan.
- They are also called as ‘Pathans’.
- There was no idea of ‘King’ in Afghans.
- According to them King was 1st among the equals (Primus Inter Paris).
Sikander lodhi from 1489AD to 1517AD
- He was the Second sultan to be born of a Hindu mother.
- During this time as well he brought some Anti – Hindu policies in order to project himself as a fully Muslim to ulemas.
- A very popular Hindu festival of Sheetala Mata (goddess of small pox/chicken pox) was banned.
- He banned anti- sufi shrine visits.
Ibrahim Lodhi from 1517AD to 1526AD
- He became the sultan of Delhi in 1517 after the death of his father Sikander Lodi.
- He was the last ruler of Lodhi dynasty.
- He was killed by Babur in 1st Battle of Panipat (1526).
- His Mausoleum(Tomb) is in Panipat.
Babur became the king and marked the emergence of Mughal rule in India.
Expansion of Delhi Sultanate
- The eastern Rajasthan including Ajmer and some of its neighboring territories came under the control of the Delhi sultanate.
- The southern & western Rajasthan had remained outside the control of the sultanate.
- Within a period of 25 years, the armies of the Delhi sultanate not only brought Gujarat and Malwa under their control and subdued the most of the princes in Rajasthan, they also overran the Deccan and south India Up to Madurai.
- The Turkish rulers had strong reasons for coveting Malwa and Gujarat.
- Not only were these areas fertile and populous, they controlled the western sea-ports and the trade routes connecting them with the Ganga valley.
- The overseas trade from Gujarat ports brought in a lot of gold and silver which had been accumulated by the rulers of the area.
- Another reason was to establish their control over the supply of horses to their armies.
- The import of Arabi, Iraqi and Turki horses to India from the western sea-ports had been an important item of trade since the 8th century.
Miscellaneous important Points
- During Alauddin Khilji rule ,each market was under the control of a high officer called ’ Shahna ‘ who maintained a register of the merchants and strictly controlled the shopkeepers & the prices.
- Slavery was accepted in Medieval India as a normal feature.
- A ‘sawar’ means Cavalryman.
- Alauddin was the 1st monarch in the Sultante who insisted that in doab, land revenue would be assessed on the basis of measuring the land under cultivation.
- Alauudin wanted that the landlords pf the area called ‘Khuts & Muqaddams’ should pay the same taxes as the others.
- ‘Wazirs’ were primarily military leaders.
- He began to be considered more an expert in revenue affairs, and presided over a large department dealing both with income & expenditure .
The most important department of state, next to the wazir’s was the diwani-i–arz or the military department.The head of this department was called the ariz- i- mamalik.
- The arz was not the commander-in –chief of the army since the sultan himself commanded all the armed forces.
- Alauddin Khalji was also the first sultan who paid his soldiers fully in cash.
There were also two more important departments of the state:
The Diwani- i– risalat: It dealt with religious matters, pious foundations and stipends to deserving scholars and men of piety. It was presided by the chief Sadr, who was generally a leading Qazi .Diwani-i- insha: Dealt with state correspondence. All the correspondence, formal or confidential, between the ruler and the sovereigns of the other states, and with his subordinate officials was dealt with by this department.
- The village headmen was called ‘Muqaddams’ and smaller landlords as 'Khuts’.
Bengal and the towns of Gujarat were famous for their fine quality fabrics.
Cambay in Gujarat was famous for textiles and for gold and silver work.
Sonargaon in Bengal was famous for rw silk and fine cotton cloth (called muslin later on ).
- Some of the new crafts introduced by the Turks included the manufacturing of Paper.
- The Art of manufacturing paper had been discovered by the Chinese in 2nd Century.
- It was known in the Arab world in 5th century, and travelled to Europe only during the 14th Century.
- The production of textiles was also improved by the introduction of spinning wheel.
- Cotton could be cleaned faster and better by the use of the cotton carder’s bow(dhunia).
- And even more important development was the improvement of the rahat(miscalled the Persian wheel) so that water could be lifted from a deeper level for Irrigation.
- Introduction of a superior mortar which enabled the Turks to erect magnificent buildings based on the arch and the dome.
Did You Know
Dargah: Where humans /sufi were buried after death & a shrine was constructed on top of it, which was worshipped. It is considered Anti-Islamic by orthodox Muslims.