- Earth is that the only planet in our solar system that has the viable conditions forever to exist.
It's the main reason While the presence of water and oxygen.
comes from a seed.
- This seed is covered with seed coats, which protect the seed.
Classification of Plants on the Growth Habit
- Have soft, green and weak stems. Usually its height is short and will not have many branches.
- It is used for food, medicine or perfume.
- For Example: Rice, Maize, Wheat, Mint, Sunflower, Coriander, Rosemary etc.
- Some plants have branches arising from the bottom of the stem.
- The stem is hard but not very thick.
- For Example: lemon, china rose, jasmine, etc.
- Some plants are very tall and have hard and thick stem. they have branches arising from upper part of the stem.
- For Example: Mango, Neem, Coconut, Banyan etc.
- These also are plants with soft and weak stems but rather than spreading on the ground they take support with a nearby object to climb up.
- For Example: Cucumber, Grapevine, Money-plant, Bean etc.
- These are plants have soft, weak and green stems and hence cannot stand straight and instead spread on the bottom .
- For Example: Sweet Potato, Watermelon, Pumpkin etc.
Classification of Plants on the Premise of Life Cycle
Classification of Plants on the premise of life cycle are:
- These kinds of plants whose life cycle is completed in one season.
- For Example: Mustard and Wheat
- These sorts of plants whose life cycle requires two seasons for completion.
- For Example: Radish, Carrot and Potato
- These varieties of plants whose life cycle runs for more than two seasons.
- For Example: Babul, Guava and Palm Trees
Parts of Plants and Their Functions
The different parts of plants are:
The root may be a vital component of the plant system.
- The underground a part of a plant is called root.
- Tap root system:
- Primary root comes out from the seed after germination. it's called true roots.
- Fibrous root system:
These roots grow from the bottom of the stem have a bushy appearance.
- Fibrous roots are thin and almost equal in size.
Define Functions of roots:
Roots are liable for absorbing minerals and water from the soil and
transferring them to the stem.
- It’s only after root has transported water and minerals to stem that the stem becomes capable of transporting these to all or any parts of the plant.
Another important function of roots is to firmly anchor the plant
within the ground.
- This is essential to support the upright position of the plants.
- Roots also perform the function of storing important nutrients and food for growth.
Shoot System and its Types
Shoot System and its Types
- All parts of a plant that are above the bottom form the shoot system.
Types of shoot system:
- It holds leaves in position and helps them to spread out because the stem and its branches grow.
- It bears flowers, buds, leaves and fruits.
Parts of Leaf are:
- Leaf Lamina
Flowers and Its Parts
- A flower is that the reproductive organ of a plant.
- It gets developed into fruits and therefore the fruits contain seeds with them for next generation.
Parts of flowers:
Stalk of the flower through which the flower is joined to the branch.
Small green leaf like structure of the thalamus
Petals attract the insects and help within the process of reproduction.
These are the male organs of the flower.
- It consists of two parts:
This can be the innermost a part of the flower.
Pistil is the female reproductive a part of any flower.
The ovary contains small bead-like structures which are called ovules.
It's female organ of the flower.
It consists of three parts:
1. Correct the following statements and rewrite them in your notebook.
(a) Stem absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
(b) Leaves hold the plant upright.
(c) Roots conduct water to the leaves.
(d) The number of petals and stamens in a flower is always equal.
(e) If the sepals of a flower are joined together, its petals are also joined together.
(f) If the petals of a flower are joined together, then the pistil is joined to the petal.
a) Roots absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
b) Stem holds the plant upright.
c) Stems conduct water to the leaves.
d) The number of petals and stamens in a flower may not be always equal.
e) If the sepals of a flower are joined together, its petals are separate.
f) If the petals of a flower are joined together, then the pistil may or may not be joined to the petal.
2. Draw (a) a leaf, (b) a taproot and (c) a flower, you have studied for Table 7.3
3. Can you find a plant in your house or in your neighborhood, which has a long but weak stem? Write its name. In which category will you place it?
Yes, lauki (gourd) plant needs support. It is a climber.
4. What is the function of a stem?
Following are the functions of a stem
- The stem and its branches hold leaves to get maximum sunlight.
- It transports water from roots, food from leaves to different parts of the plant.
- It bears fruits, leaves and flowers.
5. Which of the following leaves have reticulate venation?
Wheat, tulsi, maize, grass, coriander (dhania), China rose
Tulsi, China rose and coriander have reticulate venation.
6. If a plant has fibrous root, what type of venation do its leaves have?
- If a plant has fibrous root, its leaves have parallel venation.
7. If a plant has leaves with reticulate venation, what kind of roots will it have?
- If a plant has leaves with reticulate venation, it will have tap root.
8. Is it possible for you to find out whether a plant has taproot or fibrous roots by looking at the impression of its leaf on a sheet of paper?
We cannot exactly recognize the leaves without seeing them.
- We could also be ready to have some idea by touching and smelling them.
9. What are the parts of a flower?
10. From the following plants, which of them have flowers?
Grass, maize, wheat, chilli, tomato, tulsi, peepal, shisham, banyan, mango, jamun, guava, pomegranate, papaya, banana, lemon, sugarcane, potato, groundnut
The plants which have flowers are grass, maize, wheat, chilli, tomato, tulsi, peepal, shisham, banyan (flowers lie inside its fruits), mango, jamun, guava, Pomegranate, papaya, banana, lemon, sugarcane, potato, groundnut
11. Name the part of plant which produces food. Name the process.
Leaves produce food for the plant.
- Such a process called as Photosynthesis.
12. In which part of a flower, you will find the ovary?
- Ovary is found in the lowermost and swollen part of the pistil.
13. Name two plants in which one has joined sepals and the other has separate sepals.
- Plants with joined sepals:
- Cotton and Datura
- Plants with separate sepals:
- Lotus and Rose