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Subjects /Indian History / Medieval History / Muslim Invasion in India 7th century

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Introduction
07 Mar 2021

 Earliest Muslims came in India at Kerala/Malabar for trade. These Muslims were Arabs and their language was Arabic, settled down in Kerala and called as ‘Moplas ‘also called as ‘Mappilas ‘. Let us first understand who were they and read a little more about them.

Muhammad Prophet from 571 AD to 632 AD


  • In west coast of Saudi Arabia, the holiest place was “Mecca" & in city of ‘Mecca‘ in 570 AD.
  • Prophet Mohammad was born when he was known during the time in Saudi Arabia, the people were divided into several tribes.
  • Prophet Muhammad belong to “Quraysh“ tribe.
  • Gods in form of idols (Total 360 idols for different tribes). Example of Gods in South Arabia): Manaj, Uj, Lat .
  • When Muhammad Prophet was meditating in ‘Hira Cave of  South Arabia‘during course of meditation some revelation by angels were delivered to him.
  • This revelation by Allah is called as “Revelation of the great “.
  • Those who were idol worshippers were called as believers.
  • And non-idol worshippers were called as non-believers.
  • This was the beginning of the warfare between believers and non- believers.
  • Initially, believers were powerful and non-believers were less in number.


Rise of Islam

This is connected with migration of Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina.

  • Gradually Islam became very popular in Saudi Arabia because of some social tactics. E.g. Economic Equality, Liberty & etc. This way Prophet Muhammad was able to gain some Banks of followers.
  • He went to Mecca and defeated all the Non-Believers in Mecca; all idols of Islam were destroyed. This was complete victory of Islam in Saudi Arabia.
  • After 622 AD, Islam was formally established in Saudi Arabia.
  • 10 years later in 622 AD, Prophet Muhammad died.

Emergence of Sects

  • After his death within Islam there was a rise of two sects ‘Shia & Sunni ‘. Majority of the Muslims of the world are Sunnis, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc.
  • Only in 4 Countries Shia are in majority these are Iran, Iran, Bahrain, Azerbaijan (Located in Central Asia).
  • The causes behind the emergence of the two sects were: Some wanted minority Muslims to be led by Ali ibn Abi Talib son in law of Muhammad Prophet (To spiritually lead them) and this sect came to known as Shia.
  • And others known wanted an elected person to lead them and gave him the title of “Khalifa (Caliph) “and these people emerged to be the second sect called as “Sunnis “. Abu Bakar Pbuh was the 1st Caliph.
  • Although all Muslims have groups consider the Quran to be divine, Sunni and Shia have different opinions on hadith.
  • These two groups often clash.
  • They have many disputes e.g. many personal laws like triple talaq is followed by Shia which aren’t followed by Sunnis.
  • The reason behind these clashes is historical and ideological both.
  • Ali's entire family was killed by major Muslim group known as Sunnis

So in memory of this Shia celebrates “Mohram “, a festival remembering the people killed which is also celebrated in India .

Arab Invasion in India


  • Islam was established in Saudi Arabia and its followers came to known as Muslims.
  • Earliest Muslims came in India at Kerala/Malabar for trade.
  • These Muslims were Arabs and their language was Arabic, settled down in Kerala and called as ‘Moplas ‘also called as ‘Mappilas ‘.
  • These Moplas came in India when Muhammad Prophet was still alive (Came before 632 AD).
  • The first Mosque built by them was in 630 AD in Kodungallur(Oldest Mosque in India) ,these Muslims were purchasing spies ( Black Pepper ) in Kerala and were not rulers but traders .Later they became agriculturist (peasants) in Kerala
  • Mappilas peasants revolt occurred in 1921.
  • After Mopals the Muslim Invasion over India happened in 712 AD.
  • These Muslims were  from Arab so, it is called as Arab invasion.
  • This happened in 2nd Decade of the 8th Century. The first Muslim invader was Muhammad Bin Qasim (712 AD).
  • Qasim invaded Sindh (presently in Pakistan).
  • That time Dahir was the ruler of Sindh whose kingdom was invaded by him in 712 AD. An Arab vessel was Coming from Asia to Saudi Arabia with royal families of Arab. This ship was hijacked by pirates.
  • Al –Hejaz was the king of Arabia that time.
  • Dahir who was the king of Sindh did not respond to the request made by the king of Saudi Arabia to help and rescue the royal ship.
  • This resulted in sending a naval Expedition by attack over Sindh.
  • Dahir was easily defeated by Muhammad Qasim and he himself became the king of Sindh.
  • Muhammad Qasim started a new tax on not only non-Muslims (Majority were Hindus) which was a very controversial tax and it was imposed only in Sindh area.