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Introduction
06 Jan 2021

Adverb

It is a word that can qualify all the parts of speech except noun, pronoun or interjection (exclamation).

  • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.
  • They tell – how, when or where, how often or how much.
  • Many adverbs in English ends in -ly but not all.

Examples:

  • She smiled gently at him. (Manner)
  • Ram is never late for gym session. (Frequency)
  • The thieves can’t be found anywhere. (Place)
  • I must complete my homework very soon. (Degree)
  • We still have not completed our project report. (Time)
  • Students were playing in the ground. (Adverb phrase of place)

Adverbs modifying other parts of speech

  • This game is rather interesting. (Adverb modifying Adjective - Interesting)
  • Ram can swim fast indeed. (Adverb modifying Adverb - Indeed)
  • The car is exactly under the shade. (Adverb modifying Preposition - Under)
  • Many students submitted their fee just before the last date. (Adverb modifying Conjunction - before).

Types of Adverbs

Types of Adverbs

1. Simple Adverbs

Adverb of – Time, Place, Manner, Frequency, Reason, Condition, Affirmation/Negation.

2. Relative Adverbs

(When, Where, Why, How) + Subject + Helping verb + Main verb + Object.

Note: No question mark at the end.

Example:

  • The captain asked the player where they had been last night.
  • Relative adverb introduces a group of words, or a clause, that tells more about a noun.

3. Interrogative Adverbs

(When, Where, Why, How) + Helping verb + Subject + Main verb + Object.

Note: There will be a question mark at the end.

Example:

  • How did you do that?
  • When had you been there?

Simple Adverbs

Adverb of Time – It tells When anything happened.

Adverbs: Now, soon, still, then, today, yet, usually, always.

Example:

  • The train will arrive soon.
  • It is always expected from the greats to perform when it matters a lot.
  • India will soon be the world’s biggest economy.

2. Adverb of Place – It tells Where something has happened.

Adverbs: By, down, here, near, there, somewhere, anywhere, nowhere, up.

Example:

  • The new school will be built near the lake.

3. Adverb of Manner – It tells How something has happened.

Adverbs: Courageously, joyously, hastily, fast, hard, well.

Example:

  • Indian soldiers fought courageously in the Kargil war.
  • New year is celebrated joyously all over the world.

4.Adverb of Frequency – It tells How many times or How frequently.

Adverbs: Never, once, rarely, seldom, sometimes, often.

Example:

  • Celebrities never come on time.
  • Rarely has it rains in world's driest places.

Words used to represents:

ConditionIf

ReasonBecause/Because of

Affirmation/NegationYes/No

DegreeFairly, hardly, not, rather, too, very

Note: No is an Adjective and Not is an Adverb.


Position of Adverb

1. Front

Adverb + Subject + Helping verb + Main verb + Object

Example:

  • Fortunately, no one hurts in the accident.

2. Mid

Adverb between Subject and Helping Verb.

Note: Adverb of frequency, negation and certainty goes in the mid position.

Example:

  • Rahul never missed a lecture.

3. End

Adverb after Main verb.

Example:

  • He writes carefully.

Rules of Adverbs

Order of Adverbs:

1. Manner, Place and Time.

Example:

 Error

A contestant from Delhi performed on the stage of a dancing show with beautiful moves in the last episode.

 Correct

A contestant from Delhi performed with beautiful moves on the stage of a dancing show in the last episode.

 Exception

We always use Place, Manner and Time, with the following  verbs:

 Come, go, arrive, reach, enter, swim and sleep.

 

2. Place, Frequency and Time.

Example:

One of them visited this temple two times a week last month.

Inversion

Meaning – Helping verb comes before the Subject in a sentence.

 

1. If a sentence starts with the following words:

Hardly, scarcely, seldom, never, rarely, barely and no sooner.

We always use inversion.

Example:

  • Hardly had I started to write when someone knocked at the door.

2. If a sentence starts with adverb phrase of place, we always use Inversion.

Example:

  • On the white paper does she draw a beautiful 3-D painting.
  • Near the river has an old monk been living for a long time.

3. If we provide short answers with the help of ‘Neither’, ‘Nor’, or ‘So’ – we use Inversion.

Example:

  • All the players performed well so did I.
  • He did not work hard nor did I.

Adverbial Phrases

Adverbial Phrases of frequency, time and place.

They describe where, when or how often something happens.

 

Adverbial phrases of frequency show how often something happens.

They generally go in Present indefinite tense.

‘On Sunday’ means only one Sunday; ‘On Sundays’ means every Sunday.

 

Adverbial phrases of time show when do you do something.

They generally go at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

Common mistake: using adverb of time in between the subject and the Object.

Example:

Wrong: I went yesterday to the zoo. (x)

Correct: I went to the zoo yesterday.

Correct: Yesterday I went to the zoo.

 

Adverbial phrases of place are used to talk about where something happens.

Adverbs of place usually go after a verb.

They can also go after the object of the sentence.

Qualifiers

A qualifier is a word or a phrase that precedes an adjective or adverb.

Too, very, so, much, etc.

Structure of various Qualifiers:

Too + Adjective (Negative, means more than any extent)

Very + Adjective (Positive, means up to an extent)

Example:

  • He is too poor. (never write very)
  • God is very kind. (never write too)

Fill in the blank:

Q) Father loves his son …… much. (too/very)

Ans: Very

 

So – as and so - that

  • So + Adjective + That + Subject + Verb + Object
  • So + Adjective + As + Noun

 

Much and Very

Much

Very

 Much + Comparative degree

 E.g.  Much better

 

 Very + positive degree

 E.g. Very good

 

 Much + The + Superlative degree

 E.g. You are much the best student

 

 The + Very + Superlative degree

 E.g. You are the very best student.

 

 Much + Past participle

 E.g. I have a much interested novel

 

 Very + Present participle

 E.g. This is a very interesting book.

 

 

Too much + Noun

Much too + Adjective

His life is much too painful.

You have to face too much difficulties in your life.

 

Points to Remember

Noun + ‘ly’ = Adjective

Example:

Brother + ly = Brotherly (adjective)

 

Adjective + ‘ly’ = Adverb

Example:

Beautiful + ly = Beautifully (adverb)

 

Error – Use adjective in place of adverbs.

Example:

Wrong: He spends miserly.

Correction: He spends in miserly manner.

Wrong: I did my work timely.

Correct: I did my work on time.

 

Words that can be used both as an Adjective and Adverb

1. Enough

As adverb (verb + enough)

As adjective (enough + noun)

Example:

  • Everyone should work enough to get settled in life.
  • He is tall enough to qualify for high jump.

2. Only

Example:

  • A farmer only died yesterday.
  • You will only pass when you work hard.

 

Key points:

  • Some adverbs are irregular, that do not end in - ly. These include:
    • Well, hard, fast, late, etc.
  • The adverb goes after the verb it describes.
  • If the verb has a direct object without preposition the adverb should go after the object.
  • If the verb is followed by a preposition and an object, adverb can be placed at different places:
  • Some verbs only take adjective not adverbs.
  • Use a noun after 'After' and 'Before' otherwise use Afterwards and beforehand.

Did You Know

  • Many adverbs end in -ly, which are made by adding -ly to the Adjectives.
  • Adjectives that do not change form to become adverbs are called Flat Adverbs – Early, late, Fast, etc.
  • Same words can act as Adverbs and Adjective in a sentence like – Early and Hard.