“The French was searching the key of India in Madras. The British search the key of India in Bengal.”
- British opened their 1st factory at “Hoogly” in 1651 during the Subedarship of “Shah Shuja”, son of Shah Jahan.
- The English began to trade in “Silk, Sugar and Salt Peter (KnO3), which were 3 cheap export commodities of Bengal.
- In 1740, Alivardi Khan the deputy Nawab of Bihar revolted against the Nawab of Bengal (Sarfaraz Khan) and Killed Him.
According to Alivardi Khan:
“THE EUROPEANS WERE LIKE THE BEES WHO WOULD MAKE HONEY FOR THEMSELVES BUT WOULD LIKE TO STING TILL DEATH”.
- Alivardi Khan died in 1756 and was succeeded by his Grand son ‘Siraj-Ud-Daula’.
- Nawab Siraj-Ud-Daula had 3 enemy who opposed his succession:
- Ghasiti Begum (A Childless widow who had immense wealth living in Dhaka).
- Mir Jafar ( Past of Bakshi i.e, Commander in Chief)
- Shauqat Jung (He was deputy Nawab of Purwa)
- Siraj-Ud-Daula took precautionary measures:
- He seized the huge wealth of Ghasiti Begum.
- Mir Jafar was replaced from the past of Bakshi and given to his faithful officer Mir Madan.
- At last he attacked on Shauqat Jung and Killed him.
Conflict Between SIRAJ-UD-DAULA and EAST INDIA COMPANY
- Nawab Siraj-Ud-Daula has some specific grievances against East India Company:
- Misuse of ‘Dastak’
- Fortification along with ‘Moat’ (A deep defensive ditch)
1756: Siraj-Ud-Daula was captured at Qasim Bazar.
20 June 1756: Siraj-Ud-Daula Captured Calcutta.
“BLACK HOLE INCIDENT” - It is said that Nawab Siraj-Ud-Daula arrested 146 English Men Including Women and Children and they were kept in a small cell (of area 18X14 ft.)
- Out of 146, only 23 survived next morning and the rest were died due to suffocation.
- This story was narrated by J. Z. Holwell
- The contemporary historian Gulam Hussain did not mention a lot about this incident in his book “Seir-Ul-Mutqherin”.
- It was a device used by company officer against Siraj-Ud-Daula.
In January 1757 - Robert Clive captured Calcutta.
February 1757 – “Treaty of Alingar” was signed.
Siraj-Ud-Daula changed the name of CALCUTTA as ‘ALINAGAR’ in the memory of ‘Ali Wardi Khan’
According to this treaty:
- All the goods under British Dastak were to be duty free.
- The British were allowed to make “Moat”
- The British were also allowed to mince coins in Bengal.
BATTLE OF PLASSEY
The Battle of Plassey took place in 23 June 1757.
Robert Clive Vs Siraj-ud-Daula
- Siraj-Ud-Daula was defeated and killed by Miran (son of Mir Jafar).
- Mir Madan was also died.
MIR JAFAR (1757-1760)
- He signed a secret treaty with English According to that:
- He has to pay 1.77 crore to British East India Company as a war indemnity.
- A defensive and offensive alliance.
- The British troops were to be maintained and paid by Mir Jafar.
- Februrary 1760 - Robert Clive went back to British.
- February 1760-July 1760 – J.Z.Halwell became the acting governor general of Bengal.
- July 1760-1764 – Henry Vansittart became the Governor of Bengal.
- Note- At the suggestion of Halwell, Henry Vensittart deposed Mir Jafar and gave this post to Mir Qasim.
MIR QASIM (1760-1763)
- He also signed a secret treaty with English According to which,
- He agreed to pay 5 Lac rupees to British East India Company (due To 3rd Carnatic War)
- The Defensive and Offensive Alliance.
- He assigned the following 3 District to British East India Company:
Administration of Mir Qasim:
- He shifted his capital from “Mursidabad” to Munger ( Present Bihar ).
- He reorganised his army on European model under an Armenian – “Gurgin Khan”
- He set up an arms factory at “Munger”.
Conflicts Between Mir Qasim and East India Company
- The Dastak Issue and Ram Narayan Episode strained the relationship between Mir Qasim and Company.
- Ram Narayan, the deputy nawab of Bihar was not responding the repeated request of Mir Qasim because he has a support of British East India Company.
Battle of Buxar
- The Battle of Buxar took place in 22nd October 1764.
- British Commander Major Adams march against Mir Qasim.
- Mir Qasim was defeated at – Munger, Murshidabad and many other places.
- Mir Qasim fled to Patna, he killed many innocent Britishers as well as some suspected Indians. This Incident is known as “Patna Incident of 1763”
- Then he entered in Awadh and made alliance with Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-ud-Daula, and Mughal emperor “Shah Alam II”.
- But the joint force of Bengal and Awadh was defeated by M. Hector Munroe, In the Battle of Buxar”.
- Mir Qasim fled away from there, he was died near Delhi in extreme poverty in 1776.
- But the British arrested Nawab of Awadh Shuja-Ud-Daula and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
- They were forced to sign a treaty known as “Treaty of Allahabad” in 1756.
Battle of Plassy was won by Conspiracy and Battle of Buxar by British Army Power.
Treaty Of Allahabad
- The treaty of Allahabad was signed on 16th August 1765.
- The treaty of Allahabad was a Master stroke policy of Robert Clive. (In his absence the Battle of Buxar was fought).
Shah Alam II
1. State of Avadh was restored except Kara and Allahabad.
2. Made to pay 50 Lakhs as war indemnity.
3. An offensive and defensive alliance.
4. The East India Company got the right of free trade in Avadh.
5. The Zamindari of Banaras and Gazipur was given to Raja Balwant Singh who had come under British Rule.
1. The emperor was given the district of Kara and Allahabad. Which the company had got from Nawab of Avadh.
2. He was given a pension of 26 Lakh.
3. In return the emperor had to grant the Diwani (Revenue) of Bengal to the Company.
DUAL SYSTEM OF BENGAL
- Lord Clive established it.
- During the Dual Government the company undertook the Defence and left the Civil Administration in the hands of Nawab.
- Nawab was paid 56 lakh annually for administration. But after 2 years it was reduced to 32 lakh.
- The Dual system proved very unsatisfactory. Which the Nawab was burdened which all the responsibilities and the company retained all the power.
- In 1772 at last after 7 years Warren Hastings put an end to this system;
- Nizam-ud-Daula – Nawab of Bengal when Dual System was established.
- Mubaraq-ud-Daula – Nawab of Bengal when dual system was abolished.
Nawab of Bengals
1. Mir Jafar (1757 – 1760)
2. Mir Qasim (1760 – 1763)
3. Mir Jafar (1763 – 1765)
4. Nijam-ud-Daula (1765 – 1766)
5. Saif-ud-Daula (1766 – 1770)
6. Mubaraq-ud-Daula (1770 – 1775)