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Subjects /Class 6 / Science.6 / Fibre to Fabric

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INTRODUCTION
23 Sep 2021

In this chapter, we will study about the different kinds of fibers and the fabrics made from such fibers.

We will also learn about the use of various fibres and how different fibres have different qualities.

To understand better, let us first do one little exercise:

  • Open your mother’s almirah and check out the clothes she wears.
  • Try to recall the texture of woolen sweater you wear in winters.
  • Do you have a rope? If yes, then check it out as well.

Everything around us is made up of some kind of fibre.

Now let us start!

Fibre and its Types

  • All cloth materials are made up of long, narrow, thin structures called fibres.
  • Fibres are obtained from natural as well as man-made or synthetic fibre.

Types of Fibres

  • Synthetic Fibre and its examples:
    • Fibres which are made by man from chemical substance.
    • Examples: Polyester, nylon, rayon etc,.
  • Natural Fibre and its examples:
    • The fibre which are obtained from plants and animals.
    • Example 1: Jute, Cotton (obtained from plants)
    • Example 2: Wool and Silk (obtained from animals)

Wool - It is obtained from hair of sheep, hair of rabbits, yak and camels also

Silk - It is obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm.


Where does Cotton bolls come from

  • Cotton is the most important industrial crop.
  • Cotton plants need warm climate.
  • Cotton is planted early in the spring.
  • Black soil is excellent for cotton’s cultivation.
  • Cotton grows in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Odisha etc.
  • The fruit of cotton is known as cotton bolls.
  • From the bolls, cotton is usually picked by hand.
  • Fruits of cotton plant are spherical-shaped structures of the size of wall nut which are called cotton bolls.
  • On maturation, cotton bolls burst open, exposing the white fibres.
  • Cotton fibres are obtained from cotton bolls.

What are the benefits of cotton

  • Manufacturing of textiles
  • As an absorbent in hospital
  • As a main raw material for the manufacturing of rayon and paper industry
  • As fillers in mattresses, pillows and quilts.

Other Important Terms

Define Ginning:

The process in which seeds from cotton are pulled out by steel combs is called ginning.

Define Yarn:

Yarn is defined as a long, twisted and continuous strand composed of interlocked fibres or filaments which are used in knitting and weaving to form cloth.


Jute

It is the second most important fibre after cotton.

One of the CHEAPEST natural fibre.

Jute is a fibre obtained from the bark of the jute plant.

Grows best in warm, humid climate, with plenty of rainfall.

Alluvial soil is best.

It is a rainy season crop.

In India, jute is mainly grown in West Bengal, Bihar & Assam.

Sowing is done between February and may.

It is harvested from June to September depending upon whether the sowings are early or late.

The stems of these harvested plants are then soaked in water for 4 to 5 days

The stems are left to rot and then the fibres are picked out by hand.

Spinning and Weaving

Spinning

  • Spinning is the process of constructing yarn from fibres in which fibres from a huge heap of cotton wool are taken out and twisted which brings them together to form a yarn.
  • There are two major devices called Takli which is a hand spindle and Charkha which is also a hand-operated device, are used for spinning.

Charkha

Charkha is a machine on which yarn was spun directly from ginned cotton in olden days.


Weaving:

The process of entwining two sets of yarn simultaneously to make fabric is called Weaving.


Knitting:

Knitting is the process by which a single strand of yarn is used to make a piece of fabric.

Socks, sweaters, mufflers and a lot of other winter clothes are made of knitted fabrics.

Knitting can be done by hand as well as by machines.

History of Clothing Material

  • Ancient people used the bark and big leaves of tree or animals skins or furs to cover themselves.
  • After settling in agriculture communities, they learnt to weave twigs and grass into mats and baskets.
  • Early Indians wore fabrics made out of cotton.
  • In ancient Egypt, cotton as well as flax was used for making fabrics.
  • After the invention of the sewing needle, people started stitching fabrics to make cloth.

NCERT SOLUTIONS

1. Classify the following fibers as natural or synthetic:

Nylon, wool, cotton, silk, polyester, jute

Solution:

Natural: Wool, Cotton, Silk, Jute

Synthetic: Nylon, Polyester


2. State whether the following statements are true or false:

a) Yarn is made from fibres.

b) Spinning is a process of making fibres.

c) Jute is the outer covering of coconut.

d) The process of removing seed from cotton is called ginning.

e) The weaving of yarn makes a piece of fabric.

f) The silk fibre is obtained from the stem of a plant.

g) Polyester is a natural fibre.

Solution:

a) True         b) False        c) False        d) True         e) True         f) False

g) False


3. Fill in the blanks:

a) Plant fibres are obtained from cotton and jute.

b) Animals fibres are silk and wool.


4. From which parts of the plant cotton and jute are obtained?

Solution:

  • Cotton → Fruits of the cotton plant.
  • Jute → Stem of the jute plant.

5. Name two items that are made from coconut fiber.

Solution:

  • Gunny bags
  • Ropes
  • Mats.

6. Explain the process of making yarn from fiber.

Solution:

  • Yarn are often made up of fibre by the method called Spinning.
  • From the mass of cotton, fibres are drawn and twisted which brings together the fibres to make a yarn.
  • Takli and Charkha are the two devices used for spinning.

Did You Know

  • Silk was first harvested by Chinese.
  • Silk is also one of the strongest natural fibre.
  • Cotton is called the King of the Fibres.