Subjects /Art and Culture - UPSC & Other STATE PSC SSC & BANKING GK / Religions in India - Islam and Sufi Movement
- The word islam means “submission to god”.
- It originated in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century AD.
- Prophet Muhammad was the last messenger sent by God on earth to reveal the message to his followers. This message was provided to him by an angel.
- He left him home in Mecca and migrated to Madina. After a coup, he managed to come back to Mecca and this travel from Madina to Mecca became a holy route and was called Hajj.
After the death of Muhammad, caliphates were created and the imams used to spread the teachings of the Islam.
Sects of Islam
- Sunni: They believe that the successor of to Prophet Muhammad should be someone who was close to Prophet and who was his intial follower like Abu Bakr.
- In India, majority of Muslims are Sunni.
- Shia: They believe that the successor of Prophet Muhammad should be from his own flesh and blood i.e. his son-in-law Ali.
Basic Philosophy of Islam
- There is only one Allah.
- Day of judgement: The day of reckoning when the merits and bad deeds will be judged and one would be sent to the hell or heaven.
- Juma Namaz: The prayers on Friday thar are suppose to be in the community mosque.
- Ramzam: Holy month of Muslims when they keep fast from sunrise to sunset. It ends with Eid celebrations.
Literature of Islam
- Hadith: Saying or teachings of Prophet Muhammad. It is the holy book of Muslims.
- Sharia: Book of Islamic laws.
- It was mainly popular in Persia during 12 AD and considered as Islamic mysticism. In Arabic, word sufi means purity.
- It believes in humanity, tolerance, union with God, discouraged materialism, unity of Hindu and Muslim, rejected dogmas, rejected rituals.
- There are three stages in the history of sufism:
- Kanqah (10th AD): It is called the age of Golden Mysticism.
- Tariqa (11-14th AD): Sufism was institutionalised and traditions and symbols were attached to it.
- Tarifa (15th AD): When Sufism became a popular movement.
Features of Sufism
Some of the features of Sufism are:
- It focuses on self-realisation, tolerance, righteousness and universal love for all.
- The ultimate goal of Sufism is Union with the God.
- It followed Pir-Murid tradition i.e. Guru-Shishya tradition.
- Basic terms associated with sufism are:
- Fana: spiritual merger of the devotee with Allah.
- Sama: spiritual dance and music to promote their concepts.
- Zikr-tauba: remembrance of God all the time.
- Insan-e-kamil: Perfect human with all good virtues.
- The Sufi saints are Fakirs (poor man).
Did You Know
- Islam has more than 2 billion followers worldwide.
- There are about 50 countries where majority of the population is Muslim.
It is world's second largest religion after Christianity.